May 6, 2012
tom

Can Elastic Load Balancers correctly distribute traffic to different size instances

Question

Just been looking into Elastic Load Balancers. As I understand it they just do round robin, evenly distributing connections to the servers behind them. So what happens if you have different size instances behind an ELB? Does it send more connections to the larger instance or does it continue to evenly distribute the connections, which would mean you really shouldn’t use different size instances.

Answer

As I understand it they just do round robin, evenly distributing
connections to the servers behind them.

Kind of, but not quite I think – unfortunately, the Amazon ELB routing documentation falls short of being non existent, so one needs to assemble some pieces to draw a conclusion. Here is the only fragment from the Elastic Load Balancing Developer Guide I’m aware of, see section Sticky Sessions in Overview of Elastic Load Balancing:

By default, a load balancer routes each request independently to the
application instance with the smallest load
. However, you can use the
sticky session feature (also known as session affinity), which enables
the load balancer to bind a user’s session to a specific application
instance. This ensures that all requests coming from the user during
the session will be sent to the same application instance. [emphasis mine]

Now what does smallest load mean exactly? Again, the only explanation I’m aware of is the somewhat vague AWS team response from 2009 to ELB Strategy:

ELB loosely keeps track of how many requests (or connections in the
case of TCP) are outstanding at each instance.
It does not monitor
resource usage (such as CPU or memory) at each instance. ELB
currently will round-robin amongst those instances that it believes
has the fewest outstanding requests. [emphasis mine]

This makes a lot of sense concerning their system architecture and addressed use cases, but obviously doesn’t provide the transparency and/or control of routing you may want or need for advanced HA scenarios.

Please note that, depending on interpretation, this may or may not be contradicted a bit by a more recent AWS team response to Elastic Load Balancing – Load distribution policies:

Round-robin does come into play but the client sessions do not always
honour TTL’s or DNS caches so you can get skewed results and uneven
distributions of requests. The ELB does not take into effect what
traffic/requests instances have received to-date in there traffic
routing decisions.
[emphasis mine]

Health Checks

Of course, the above is amended with the properly documented, transparent and controllable health checks, which gives you some leverage to (potentially temporarily) remove instances from being included in routing in the first place, as summarized in the aforementioned AWS team response to ELB Strategy as well:

The load balancer monitors the health of your instances registered
with your load balancer. When the load balancer detects a problem with
an instance, it stops distributing traffic to it. When the instance is
healthy again, the load balancer restarts distributing traffic to it.
This process allows your application to automatically react to failed
instances without your having to be involved beyond configuring the
healthcheck.

Conclusion

While certainly unusual, I don’t see why ELB shouldn’t work with a pool of different Amazon EC2 instance types as well – I haven’t tried this myself though and would recommend both, Monitoring Your Load Balancer Using CloudWatch as well as monitoring your individual EC2 instances and correlate the results in order to gain respective insight and confidence into such a setup eventually.

Answered by Steffen Opel

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  2. AWS Elastic load balancer doesn’t decrease instances from Alarm Trigger
  3. Elastic Load Balancing using a chain of domains/hosts
  4. What other ways can I load balance EC2 servers without using Elastic Load Balancing?
  5. ow to allow elastic load balancer through port 80 in security groups

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